Thursday, January 16, 2020

Workplace and Employee Motivation

In recent years, the topic of workplace and employee motivation has emerged as a significant concern for both employers and management personnel. An analysis of such strategies at a Target Retail Store provides an example of how such motivational strategies affect the company†s sales, profits, workplace morale, and future. One of the most important issues at a Target Retail Store is the timely method and manner of placing and displaying the merchandise on the sales floor before the store actually opens to the public at 8:00 a. m. This must be effectively done with limited resources and staff. As a result, management must be able to appropriately and effectively motivate all staff employees and improve performance and employees† resistance to increasing productivity. This paper will examine the organizational efforts of Target Retail Stores in this area, and identify and analyze two motivational theories not currently in practice by Target. It will also apply the chosen motivational theories to management and discuss their impact and offer possible solutions that could have been implemented before employee motivation became an issue. In order to eliminate the time it normally took to neatly present merchandise on the sales floor, Target implemented a program that would effectively eliminate unnecessary packaging (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). The results of this was the elimination of approximately 1. 5 million pounds of waste, an estimated saved $4. 5 million through packaging reduction, and the implementation of a more efficient method of merchandise distribution (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). This led to an easier and more efficient merchandise placement in preparation for store opening every morning. Before the program†s implementation, Target†s management team observed both the amount of waste from packaging and the time workers spent opening and unwrapping shipments (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). The team found that a great deal of labor was expended tearing apart packaging from merchandise. For example, one typical clothing shipment contained 20 individually wrapped sweaters. The sweaters had to be unwrapped before they could be displayed in the store. The team ultimately determined that an entire shipment of 20 sweaters could be safely shipped in just one outside wrapper (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). The total reduction in packaging for the Target merchandise resulted in an estimated $3 million savings to the vendor for the reduced packaging material used in shipments (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). To see whether the merchandise would arrive at the store in good condition, the Target Team asked its vendors to test its packaging reduction idea. After several shipments of clothing arrived unwrinkled and presentable, the team decided to change Target's packaging specifications to the vendor (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). Target's current goal is to ship floor-ready apparel and minimize excess packaging; floor-ready means that the merchandise requires minimal preparation before being displayed on the sales floor (EDA†s Waste Reduction Update, 2005). As a result of an easier and more effective process, employee motivation in this area has been boosted. Although this method has increased efficiency, there are other methods that can still be implemented to increase employee motivation and productivity. One such theory of employee motivation is called motivation theory, which seeks to explain all kinds of motivated behavior in different situations, including behavior in organizations. Compensation administration is an application of motivation theory (Mitchell, 1992). Since the majority of behavior is sense motivated, individuals are greatly influenced by their environment. Thus, organizations can influence people†s behavior by changing environments and rewards. The best known theory of motivation in this area is Maslow†s theory of human motivation, which centers on the theory of â€Å"physiological needs (Maslow, 1943). As related to the theory of human motivation all people have a need or desire for a stable, formally based, high evaluation of themselves, for self respect, self esteem, and respect from others (Maslow, 1943). By firmly based self-esteem, Maslow†s theory was that which is based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. However, motivation is not the sole determinant of behavior. Ability and knowledge of what one is supposed to do combine with motivation in determining behavior in organizations. Also, an organization†s tasks vary in their requirements. Thus motivation can make little or much difference in performance, depending on the task. Another related motivational theory that could be applied to the Target Retail Store scenario is what is termed â€Å"content theory. † Content or arousal theories center on needs or drives. Several physiological and social needs have been identified and studied. A need for competence in mastering the environment is supposedly aroused when individuals are faced with new, challenging situations; it dissipates after mastery (McLelland, 1976). Closely related are curiosity or activity needs: people need and enjoy a stimulating environment, but they differ on this need and become adapted to certain levels of stimulation. A need for power has been suggested as a requirement for success in organizations. Effective managers may have a high need for power (McLelland, 1976). One problem with predicting behavior from individual needs is that people seem to have differing degrees of needs at different times of their lives (Maslow, 1943). An evaluation of the motivation theories based on needs probably focus on their limitations. Empirical studies have provided only modest support for them, and the proportion of the variance in performance explained has been low (McGregor, 1960). If Target was to follow Maslow†s theory of motivation, the organization could influence its employees† behavior by changing environments and rewards. This means that a reward based type of program could be implemented that would encourage employees to participate as a result of the possibility to receiving a bonus or reward. Since motivation theory is based on the fact that all people have a need or desire for a stable, formally based, high evaluation of themselves, management could use evaluations and other encouraging measures to increase self esteem, and respect from others in the workplace, thus enhancing employee motivation. Following a content needs based approach, Target management could implement an incentive program based on needs or drives. The management team could study different physiological and social needs as related to customer service and retail and implement a program based on the results of their study. A content-based approach consisting of a contest could assist the employees in mastering any new, challenging situations that may arise in their workday. Since content theory is also based on the need for a stimulating environment, target could conduct stimulating team meetings and outings that would be interesting and motivate the employees that way. Finally, research indicates that employee motivation is directly related to the success of any organization. In order to be effective, the management at Target would greatly benefit from the implementation of any of the programs and theories discussed above. This implementation would further enhance their continued success in the retail industry.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Empathy And Design Thinking Steve Jobs - 1544 Words

Empathy is a significant characteristic of a design thinker and leads to ultimate success in the business environment. Empathy allows an entrepreneur such as Steve Jobs to gain an understanding of the human experience and develop Apple products that adhere to the desirability of customers. This human centred methodology and culture of innovation allows a design thinker to examine and understand perspectives of others both imaginatively and affectively. By utilising empathy in design thinking Steve Jobs was able to develop and build Apple’s future products in an innovative and successful manner as to emerge from any previous product failure or impediment. Design thinking and empathy is utilised by designers such as Apple’s Entrepreneur Steve Jobs as a solution orientated method to solve complex problems and find desirable solutions for clients. Steve Jobs constructed an aim of simplicity and creating technology which can be individually used by customers. Founded in 1976, Apple has been considered a leading designer of computer hardware and software, nevertheless by 2012 it had fundamentally reciprocated the computer, music and mobile industry through its sleek products, innovative stores, and new business models. This transformation was a result of design thinking and empathy which Bill Atkinson member of Apple’s development team described as an Stefan and Barbara (2012, p.2) states that â€Å"emotional connection†¦ emerged from the soul of the design team†. John Sculley theShow MoreRelatedEmpathy, An Effective Tool Of A Design Thinker1544 Words   |  7 Pages Empathy or the ability to examine the world from different perspectives has been described as one of the principle personality traits of a design thinker. With reference to a real world entrepreneur and an associated business idea of your choice discuss whether you think that this is true Empathy, is far the greatest approach to examine the world from different perspective, not only is empathy just sympathizing, but it’s an effective tool of a Design thinker to perform relevant actions to meetRead MoreHuman s Problems And Issues1562 Words   |  7 Pagescreated by design thinkers. Design thinking is the process of examining and defining the world from multiple perspectives using the distinct feature of design thinking. Thus, this leads to develop and create new methods that meet the consumer’s requirements and needs. Steve Jobs is one of the most successful entrepreneur in the world that has provoked various solutions to the customers throughout analysing the critical problems and considering all the opinion of the customers using empathy. This isRead MoreR-Directed Thinking759 Words   |  4 PagesR-directed Thinking Most of us desire to become a lawyer, an accountant or a computer programmer because they are well paid and decent. But, this thought may be outdated. Daniel Pink in his book ‘ A Whole New Mind’ put forward that the future belongs to a very different kind of person with a very different kind of mind. A new world in which â€Å"right brain† qualities-inventiveness, empathy, meaning-predominate will substitute for the era of â€Å"left brain† dominance, and the Information Age engenderedRead MoreThe Creative Vision Of Steve Jobs2041 Words   |  9 Pages The creative vision of Steve Jobs launched the iPod, iPad, and iPhone. These products have changed the way we communicate and listen to music, and made Apple the most profitable company in the world. Yet, there are some employees who would rather commit suicide than make these products for Steve. How can a man with such a vision push his people to the point where they no longer want to live? Steve was a true visionary leader because he transformed the world of personal and mobile computingRead MoreLeadership : The Steve Jobs Case Study1549 Words   |  7 PagesLeadership: The Steve Jobs Case study During his life, Steve Jobs was one of the most innovative and influential leaders of his time. It could be said that he occupies one part of the continuum as a transformational leader who demonstrates the qualities of a transformational leader. Jobs used the corrective transactions of a transactional leader, such as harsh criticism (which can be seen as punishment) when a staff did not meet his expectations. Just like a transformational leader, he paid attentionRead MoreThe Great Salesman Steve Jobs Essay1393 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Salesman Steve Jobs Rachel L. Kaczkowski Mississippi College Author’s Note Rachel L. Kaczkowski. Department of Business, Mississippi College. Correspondence concerning this biography should be addressed to Rachel Kaczkowski at Abstract This biography explores the life of Steve Jobs. It goes into detail about the beginning of his life and what led him to be the man that changed the technological world. The main topic of this biography is to show the timelineRead MorePixar s Organizational Structure Of Pixar Essay1405 Words   |  6 Pagesour American culture. Pixar Animation Studios started as a part of the Lucas film computer group, which is owned by George Lucas the creator of Star Wars. However, after receiving funding from Steve Jobs the division became its own corporation in 1986. After that Disney purchased Pixar, which allowed Steve Jobs to become a shareholder in Disney also. With these changes due to the ownership of the corporation an analysis of managerial economics is overdue. What follows is an evaluate how Pixar attainsRead MoreBecoming A Visionary Leader : Steve Jobs1920 Words   |  8 PagesSteve Jobs Imagine a world without computers or smart phones. What would society do? Where would modern technology be? All it took was one man with an innovative vision to revolutionize modern day society as we know it. The late and great Steve Jobs was one of those visionary leaders that pushed ethical boundaries to their limits. According to an article by Forbes (Gallo, 2013), Jobs stated â€Å"how does somebody know what they want if they haven’t even seen it?†. Jobs paved the way forRead MoreMovie Analysis : Dumb Success 2310 Words   |  10 Pagesthan the low risk-takers who calculate the problems that may arise, thus are not reaching for opportunities that could potentially drive them towards success (Bushak). So dumb people do not think before they do and doing is more productive than thinking. It is as simple as that. A very successful high risk-taker is Tim Westergren. Westergren, the founder of Pandora Radio, talks about how his extremely stupid risks are what made his business so successful. In 2001, Pandora was on the verge of bankruptcyRead MoreA Study of the Leadership of CEOs at Apple5698 Words   |  23 PagesSpindler Page 10, 11 12 Gil Amelio Page 12, 13 14 Steve Jobs Page 15, 16 17 Tim Cook Page 17, 18 19 References Page 20 – 27 Background Information   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Apple is a company that everyone in the world knows about today, and most people own at least one Apple product, but Apple did not start out as a huge company. It started out with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak working on computers in the garage of Steve Jobs. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends since college and both

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Battle of the Crater in the Civil War

The Battle of the Crater occurred July 30, 1864, during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and was an attempt by Union forces to break the siege of Petersburg. In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln elevated Ulysses S. Grant to lieutenant general and gave him overall command of Union forces. In this new role, Grant decided to turn over operational control of the western armies to Major General William T. Sherman and moved his headquarters east to travel with Major General George G. Meades Army of the Potomac. The Overland Campaign For the spring campaign, Grant intended to strike General Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia from three directions. First, Meade was to ford the Rapidan River east of the Confederate position at Orange Court House, before turning west to engage the enemy. Further south, Major General Benjamin Butler was to move up the Peninsula from Fort Monroe and menace Richmond, while to the west Major General Franz Sigel destroyed the resources of the Shenandoah Valley. Commencing operations in early May 1864, Grant and Meade encountered Lee south of the Rapidan and fought the bloody Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-7). Stalemated after three days of fighting, Grant disengaged and moved around Lees right. Pursuing, Lees men renewed the fighting on May 8 at Spotsylvania Court House (May 8-21). Two weeks of costly saw another stalemate emerge and Grant again slipped south. After a brief encounter at North Anna (May 23-26), Union forces were halted at Cold Harbor in early June. To Petersburg Rather than force the issue at Cold Harbor, Grant withdrew east then moved south towards the James River. Crossing over a large pontoon bridge, the Army of the Potomac targeted the vital city of Petersburg. Situated south of Richmond, Petersburg was a strategic crossroads and rail hub which supplied the Confederate capital and Lees army. Its loss would make would Richmond indefensible (Map). Aware of Petersburgs significance, Butler, whose forces were at Bermuda Hundred, unsuccessfully attacked the city on June 9. These efforts were halted by Confederate forces under General P.G.T. Beauregard. First Attacks On June 14, with the Army of the Potomac nearing Petersburg, Grant ordered Butler to send Major General William F. Baldy Smiths XVIII Corps to attack the city. Crossing the river, Smiths assault was delayed through the day on the 15th, but finally moved forward that evening. Though he made some gains, he halted his men due to darkness. Across the lines, Beauregard, whose request for reinforcements had been ignored by Lee, stripped his defenses at Bermuda Hundred to reinforce Petersburg. Unaware of this, Butler remained in place rather than threatening Richmond. Despite shifting troops, Beauregard was badly outnumbered as Grants troops began arriving on the field. Attacking late in the day with the XVIII, II, and IX Corps, Grants men gradually pushed the Confederates back. Fighting resumed on 17th with the Confederates doggedly defending and preventing a Union breakthrough. As the fighting continued, Beauregards engineers commenced constructing a new line of fortifications closer the city and Lee began marching to the fighting. Union assaults on June 18 gained some ground but were halted at the new line with heavy losses. Unable to advance, Meade ordered his troops to dig in opposite the Confederates. The Siege Begins Having been halted by the Confederate defenses, Grant devised operations for severing the three open railroads leading into Petersburg. While he worked on these plans, elements of the Army of the Potomac manned the earthworks that had sprung up around Petersburgs east side. Among these was the 48th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, a member of Major General Ambrose Burnsides IX Corps. Composed largely of former coal miners, the men of the 48th devised their own plan for breaking through the Confederate lines. Armies Commanders Union Lieutenant General Ulysses S. GrantMajor General Ambrose BurnsideIX Corps Confederate General Robert E. LeeMajor General William Mahone A Bold Idea Observing that the closest Confederate fortification, Elliotts Salient, was a mere 400 feet from their position, the men of the 48th conjectured that a mine could be run from their lines under the enemy earthworks. Once complete, this mine could be packed with enough explosives to open a hole in the Confederate lines. This idea was seized upon by their commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pleasants. A mining engineer by trade, Pleasants approached Burnside with the plan arguing that the explosion would take the Confederates by surprise and would allow Union troops to rush in to take the city. Eager to restore his reputation after his defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Burnside agreed to present it to Grant and Meade. Though both men were skeptical about its chances for success, they approved it with the thought that it would keep the men busy during the siege. On June 25, Pleasants men, working with improvised tools, began digging the mine shaft. Digging continuously, the shaft reached 511 feet by July 17. During this time, the Confederates became suspicious when they heard the faint sound of digging. Sinking countermines, they came close to locating the 48ths shaft. The Union Plan Having stretched the shaft under Elliotts Salient, the miners began digging a 75-foot lateral tunnel that paralleled the earthworks above. Completed on July 23, the mine was filled with 8,000 pounds of black powder four days later. As the miners were working, Burnside had been developing his attack plan. Selecting Brigadier General Edward Ferreros division of United States Colored Troops to lead the assault, Burnside had them drilled in the use of ladders and instructed them to move along the sides of the crater to secure the breach in the Confederate lines. With Ferraros men holding the gap, Burnsides other divisions would cross to exploit the opening and take the city. To support the assault, Union guns along the line were ordered to open fire following the explosion and a large demonstration was made against Richmond to draw off enemy troops. This latter action worked particularly well as there were only 18,000 Confederate troops in Petersburg when the attack began. Upon learning that Burnside intended to lead with his black troops, Meade intervened fearing that if the attack failed he would be blamed for the needless death of these soldiers. Last Minute Changes Meade informed Burnside on July 29, the day before the attack, that he would not permit Ferreros men to spearhead the assault. With little time remaining, Burnside had his remaining division commanders draw straws. As a result, the ill-prepared division of Brigadier General James H. Ledlie was given the task. At 3:15 AM on July 30, Pleasants lit the fuse to the mine. After an hour of waiting without any explosion, two volunteers entered the mine to find problem. Finding that the fuse had gone out, they re-lit it and fled the mine. A Union Failure At 4:45 AM, the charge detonated killing at least 278 Confederate soldiers and creating a crater 170 feet long, 60-80 feet wide, and 30 feet deep. As the dust settled, Ledlies attack was delayed by the need to remove obstructions and debris. Finally moving forward, Ledlies men, who had not been briefed on the plan, charged down into the crater rather than around it. Initially using the crater for cover, they soon found themselves trapped and unable advance. Rallying, Confederate forces in the area moved along the rim of the crater and opened fire on the Union troops below. Seeing the attack failing, Burnside pushed Ferreros division in to the fray. Joining the confusion in the crater, Ferreros men endured heavy fire from the Confederates above. Despite the disaster in the crater, some Union troops succeeded in moving along the right edge of the crater and entered the Confederate works. Ordered by Lee to contain the situation, the division of Major General William Mahone launched a counterattack around 8:00 AM. Moving forward, they drove Union forces back to the crater after bitter fighting. Gaining the slopes of crater, Mahones men compelled the Union troops below to flee back to their own lines. By 1:00 PM, most of the fighting had concluded. Aftermath The disaster at the Battle of the Crater cost the Union around 3,793 killed, wounded, and captured, while the Confederates incurred around 1,500. While Pleasants was commended for his idea, the resulting attack had failed and the armies remained stalemated at Petersburg for another eight months. In the wake of the attack, Ledlie (who may have been drunk at the time) was removed from command and dismissed from the service. On August 14, Grant also relieved Burnside and sent him on leave. He would not receive another command during the war. Grant later testified that though he supported Meades decision to withdraw Ferreros division, he believed that if the black troops had been permitted to lead the attack, the battle would have resulted in a victory.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Lemonade Stand Economic Report Essay - 745 Words

Economic Report 1 Economic Summary of the Lemonade Stand Toreka Lewis Ashford University BUS 599 Introduction to Quantitative Principles Dr. Harrison Green September 23, 2011 Economic Report 2 This report provides quantative information on the lemonade stand, sourced from financial statements, the business journal, and financial data collected during all three seasons. The following economic summary report will tell how well the lemonade stand’s business is performing by deducting the stand’s capital costs from its profits. Through analysis of the previously stated quantative information, the company will be able to measure how well the stand is using capital to build economic value. The economic summary†¦show more content†¦As a result of higher current ratio, the stand will be able to obtain necessities from short-term creditors such as supplies, easier than before. The ability to obtain supplies and other necessities from short-term creditors will allow the stand to expand and perhaps secure a more profitable Season Four. In addition, the decrease in the debt-equity ratio is another positive sign that shows us that the st and can be successful in the future if managed properly. The owners of the lemonade stand place a value of $50.00 for each season toward being their own and thus have the freedom and flexibility that they would otherwise not experience while working another person or company. This form of revenue can be found in the stand’s implicit revenue on the stand’s balance sheet and is added to the value of learning how to run the business; $25.00 for Season One; as well as gaining more information and/or education on increasing profits and learning how to better manage the stand. During the third season, the stand was more concerned with maximizing returns on resources and therefore leads to a greater economic profit for that season. When the information contained in the business’ financial statements is used to create strategic objectives, such as maximizing returns on resources, the stand will be able to focus on those activities that will produce the desired result a nd also guide the owners in the management business. By focusing on activitiesShow MoreRelatedLemonade Stand Economic Summary Report1197 Words   |  5 PagesLemonade Stand Economic Summary Report John Orr Ashford University Intro to Quantitative Principles BUS599 Dr. Harrison Green October 27, 2010 Lemonade Stand Economic Summary Report Balance Sheet |BALANCE SHEET | |   |Season 1 |Season 2 |Season 3 | |Profitability Measures |   |   |   Read MoreIsfm 300 Case Study, Stage 1 Business Environment Analysis Essay2457 Words   |  10 Pagesstrategy and processes. Since time and costs are involved, the owner should address basic problems first in choosing the Strategy and which processes to improve. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019

The Background Of Metabolic Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(30) " of MetS vary and are unsure\." Harmonizing to recent worldwide estimations, 1.7 billion people are classified as either corpulence or corpulent, more than 1 billion have high blood pressure, and more than 500 million have either diabetes or the pre-diabetes position, impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ) [ Hossain et Al. 2007 ] . We will write a custom essay sample on The Background Of Metabolic Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Metabolic syndrome ( MetS ) A is a complex and multivariate disease thought to be when a figure ofA coincident metabolicA abnormalcies occur in the same person with a frequence higher than it could be expected by opportunity, foremost coined â€Å" syndrome Ten † in 1988 by ( Reaven 1998 ) . The first formal definition of the MetS was put away in 1998 by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) . The International Diabetes Federation ( IDF ) described a syndrome as â€Å" a recognizable composite of symptoms and physical or biochemical findings for which a direct cause is non understoodaˆÂ ¦the constituents coexist more often than would be expected by opportunity entirely. When causal mechanisms are identified, the syndrome becomes a disease. † MetS is so a composite of complecting hazard factors for cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) , diabetes and shot. The bunch of hazard factors encompasses dysglycemia ( unnatural glucose degrees ) , raised blood force per unit area ( high blood pressure ) , hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride degrees, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterin degrees, and cardinal adiposeness tissue degrees ( fleshiness ) . Metabolic syndrome has been assigned its ain ICD-9 diagnostic codification: 277.7, but there is ongoing contention about whether metabolic syndrome is a homogenous upset or disease, and whether it merits acknowledgment as a syndrome ( Huang 2009 ) . MetS has many factors involved ; most surveies agree that the underlying pathology of abnormalcies seems to be related to insulin opposition ( IR ) and fleshiness. The job and confusion comes from the differences in standards for the diagnosing of MetS by the ( WHO, 1998 ) , the European Group for survey on insulin Resistance ( EGIR ) in 1999, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III ( NCEP-ATP III ) in 2001, the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the ( IDF ) 2005. Regardless of which standard is used for diagnosing, all major bureaus agree to an extent that the cardinal factors include fleshiness and waist perimeter ( WC ) , insulin opposition, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure ( Alberti et al 2006 ) Multiple diagnostic standards from several beginnings have given rise to confusion and incompatibilities. Because of the different threshold degrees and how they they are combined to name, there may be fluctuations within in the same population at analysis of informations, taking to skewed hazard schemes and the prioritization of patients and their preventative intervention. One individual may be diagnosed and intervention on the footing of one set of standards, but so be ineligible utilizing another. The purpose of this instance survey is to place and foregrounding the most relevant and up to day of the month facets of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, experimental theoretical accounts, and related clinical and population informations in relation to MetS. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimates that more than 1 billion people are overweight globally, and if the current tendency continues, that figure will increase to 1.5 billion by 20154. It is estimated that over 1.7 billion individuals worldwide are fleshy, more than 300 million of whom are clinically corpulent. This addition is a multifactor with deficiency of exercising, aging, familial sensitivity and hormonal alterations being cited. This addition in fleshiness and fleshy people is associated with the addition in prevalence of Mets and diabetes ( Wild et al 2011 ) . Abdominal fleshiness is linked with the opposition effects of insulin on peripheral glucose and fatty acid metamorphosis, which can consequences in type 2 diabetes mellitus. With fleshiness comes Insulin opposition and that can take to hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycaemia, and increased adipocyte cytokines that contribute to endothelial disfunction, altered lipid profile, high blood pressure, and systemic redness. This procedure of harm can advance the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) . Therefore Mets has several possible aetiologic classs, upsets of adipose tissue ; insulin opposition ; and the grouping of independent factors of hepatic, vascular, and immunologic beginning involved in different constituents of the MetS. When the single constituents of Mets cluster together and this is associated with both the addition hazard of Diabetes and CVD ( Wild et al 2011 ) With many hazard factors for CVD included within the MetS assorted definition and standard ‘s, the purpose is provide utile early diagnosing of MetS that in bend identifies persons with cardinal fleshiness and cardio-metabolic hazard factors. ( Wild et Al 2011 ) . These persons are at increased hazard of type 2 diabetes, CVD, non-alcoholic fatso liver disease ( NAFLD ) and sleep apnoeas. These hazard factors like abdominal fat degrees can frequently be left untreated as separately they do non justify intercession. Not all fleshy people are at high hazard degrees of vascular disease, type 2 diabetes and NADFL. The Mets definition is aimed at placing the subgroups of these fleshy and corpulent persons that are at a high hazard of the effects of inordinate abdominal fat and Insulin Resistance ( IR ) . As mentioned above, several organisations have established their ain diagnostic standards for MetS, NCEP ATP III, AHA/ NHLBI, WHO, IDF, EGIR, and ACE. With In there diagnostic standards of the MetS, different combinations of predating pathological factors are required, including: Iridium, dysglycemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, fleshiness or increased waist perimeter, high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ) or DM, microalbuminuria and hyperinsulinemia. ( See Table 1 ) . The prevalence of the MetS is increasing throughout the universe ( who ) the many different estimations are nevertheless dependent on the definition used and the topic ( e.g. , sex, age, race, and ethnicity ) . The WHO and NCEP: ATPIII definitions are similar for fleshiness, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. The inclusion of requirements, IR, IGT, and type 2 diabetes of the WHO definition are more tapered. The estimations reached by the assorted definitions in a individual population are frequently really similar across surveies ; the rates are variable in subpopulations with MetS and besides between cultural groups. Therefore the planetary prevalence estimations of MetS vary and are unsure. You read "The Background Of Metabolic Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" Statistically, the incidence of metabolic syndrome is reported from assorted beginnings over the decennary is variable between the populations. It was estimated that 20-30 % European population is affected ( Vosatkova et al 2012 ) . The consequences of a wide-spread epidemiological survey carried out among the US population show metabolic syndrome prevalence of 23.9 % as defined by the standards of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and 25.1 % harmonizing to WHO standards ( Ford and Giles, 2003 ) . Most surveies used the NCEP-ATP III definition and showed an elevated prevalence of MS in different parts of the universe. Harmonizing to ( NHANES ) 2003-2006, about 34 % of people studied met the NCEP: ATPIII revised standards for MetS. ( Appendix Table 2 ) A reappraisal of current prevalence tendencies and statistics was carried out in by ( Marjani 2012 ) identified the following planetary incidence and epidemiological findings from assorted equal reviewed beginnings: The undermentioned information is taken from ( Marjani 2012 ) : The prevalence of MetS was found to increase with age with 20 % of males and 16 % of females under 40 old ages of age, 41 % of males and 37 % of females between 40-59 old ages, and 52 % of males and 54 % of females 60 old ages and over by and large. Incidence of metabolic syndrome additions as age progresses. In a survey in Turkey, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 15.3 % , 23.1 % , 28.0 % , 26.0 % , and 20.5 % among people aged from 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79 and a†°? 80 old ages old, severally. Study of Ford showed that the prevalence in the US was16.5 % and 46.4 % for males aged 20 to 60, and 19.1 % to 56.0 % , for females with additions in MetS prevalence with increased age [ 19 ] . World Health organisation predicts the prevalence of fleshiness to be 4.8 % in developed states, 17.1 % in developing and 20 % in less developed. Cardiovascular disease is one of the chief grounds of decease among adult females in the universe. .women aged more than 55 have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than younger adult females. In several surveies, the incidences of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal adult females were found to be increased in the universe. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome ( utilizing the WHO definition ) in Ireland was 21 % . The prevalence was higher in males ( 24.6 % ) than in females ( 17.8 % ) . The Botnia survey † ( utilizing the WHO definition ) found the prevalence in Finland was 84 % and 78 % in male and female topics with type-2 diabetes, severally. In the United States, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.8 % utilizing the ATP III definition. Mexican Americans had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome ( 31.9 % ) . The prevalence was similar for male ( 24.0 % ) and female ( 23.4 % ) subjects. The prevalence in Isfahan ( Iran ) was 65.0 % with higher rate in females than males ( 71.7 % female and 55.8 % male ) . The prevalence in Karachi ( Pakistan ) was 79.7 % in type 2 diabetics, ( 45.5 % females and 34.3 % males ) . The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetics in Japan was 168 ( 26.37 % ) out of 637 type 2 diabetic patients. The prevalence was higher in males ( 45.9 % ) than females ( 28.0 % ) . A survey done in Korean estimates the overall prevalence was 32.6 % . The prevalence was found to be 46.9 % and 65.1 % among males and females severally. The overall prevalence among Saudis with type 2 diabetes was 22.64 % ( 19.49 % male, 25.17 % female ) . The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients is higher in females ( 53.27 % ) than males ( 48.71 % ) , and that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Gorgan is appreciably higher compared with that in some other states. One of the latest and up to day of the month documents by ( Craig and Turner 2012 ) made a systematic reappraisal of 85 surveies. They found the average prevalence of MetS in whole populations was 3.3 % , in fleshy kids was 11.9 % , and in corpulent populations was 29.2 % . Although prevalence rates are varied throughout the universe it is clear that metabolic syndrome has developed into epidemic degrees and farther research is needed as the mechanisms of MetS are non to the full known ( Cornier et al 2008 ) . As described above, the general hypothesis to depict the pathophysiology of MetS is insulin opposition and abdominal fleshiness ( Cornier et al 2008 ) . Visceral fleshiness is the chief cause of the metabolic syndrome, and is associated with development of high blood pressure in the metabolic syndrome via a assortment of pathwaysA ( Figure1 ) . Metabolic Syndrome and its related upsets Insulin opposition Cardinal fleshiness Glucose intolerance Dyslipidemia with elevated triglycerides Low HDL-cholesterol Microalbuminuria Predominance of little heavy LDL-cholesterol atoms High blood pressure Endothelial disfunction Oxidative emphasis Inflammation Related upsets of polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease ( NASH ) , and urarthritis A major subscriber is an surfeit of go arounding fatty acids, released from an expanded abdominal adipose tissue. Free Fatty Acids ( FFA ) cut down insulin sensitiveness in musculus by suppressing insulin-mediated glucose consumption. Increased degree of go arounding glucose additions pancreatic insulin secernment ensuing in hyperinsulinemia. In the liver, FFA increase the production of glucose, triglycerides and secernment of really low denseness lipoproteins ( VLDL ) . The effect is the decrease in glucose transmutation to glycogen and increased lipid accretion in triglyceride ( TG ) . Insulin is an of import antilipolytic endocrine. In the instance of insulin opposition, the increased sum of lipolysis of stored triacylglycerol molecules in adipose tissue produces more fatty acids, which could farther suppress the antilipolytic consequence of insulin, making extra lipolysis and more FFA. This build up of FFA from increased the volume of adipocytes lead to IR through the look of assorted proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines, tumour mortification factor ( TNF ) -I ± , interleukin ( IL ) -1 and IL-6 are increased in adipose tissue but the production of anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin is reduced, this look is linked to systemic redness. The instability of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, induces insulin opposition by impairing the insulin signalling procedure. ( acquire ref ) . This addition in cytokines promote lipolysis and increase Free fatty acids ( FFAs ) so causes endothelial disfunction and increased coronary artery disease hazard ( Wieser et al 2013 ) See ( Appendix Figure 2 ) Inflammatory cytokines have been reported in the development of high blood pressure. ( Grundy 2003 ) suggests a important association among redness, high blood pressure, and the metabolic syndrome. TNF-I ± stimulates the production of endothelin-1 and angiotensinogen. interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) is a multifunctional cytokine which mediates inflammatory responses and stimulates the cardinal nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. This mediates an addition in plasma angiotensinogen and angiotonin II, and hence high blood pressure. ( Sarafidis and Bakris 2007 ) show that IR increases leptin and NEFA degrees thereby augmenting sympathetic nervous activation. The survey besides showed NEFA to raise blood force per unit area, bosom rate, and I ±1-adrenoceptor vasoreactivity, while cut downing baroreflex sensitiveness, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and vascular conformity. Insulin has anti-natriuretic and stimulates nephritic Na re-absorption. Insulin opposition and the ensuing hyperinsulinemia induce blood force per unit area lift by the activation of sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system ( RAAS ) causes sodium keeping and volume enlargement, endothelial disfunction and change in nephritic map. The subsequent hyperinsulinemia promotes the addition in sodium soaking up by the kidneys, which can impair force per unit area natriuresis, thereby doing high blood pressure in salt-sensitive persons. Hyperinsulinemia increases the sympathetic activity, taking to arterial high blood pressure. 1475-2891-7-10-1 ( 1 ) .jpg ( Figure 2 ) IR proposed tracts. YanaiA et al.A Nutrition JournalA 2008A 7:10 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-10 Insulin opposition is characterized by pathway-specific damage in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalling. In the endothelium, this may do an instability between the production of azotic oxide and secernment of endothelin-1, taking to decreased blood flow. The accretion of splanchnic fat elevates the activity in the renin-angiotensin system, due to an increased production of angiotensinogen, which accordingly favours arterial high blood pressure. FFAs contribute to endothelial disfunction by a combination of lessened PI3K-Akt signalling, increased oxidative emphasis. And increased ET-1 production. Insulin opposition and splanchnic fleshiness are associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia ( Semenkovich, 2006 ) . Atherogenic dyslipidemia can develop from increased ( FFAs ) . They are known to assist the production of the lipoprotein ( apoB ) within ( VLDL ) atoms, ensuing in more VLDL production. Insulin usually breaks down apoB through PI3K-dependent tracts, therefore insulin opposition additions VLDL production. Hypertriglyceridemia in insulin opposition is the consequence of both an addition in VLDL production and a lessening in VLDL clearance. VLDL is metabolized to remnant lipoproteins and little dense LDL, both of which can advance atheroma formation. Insulin opposition besides causes endothelial disfunction by diminishing Akt kinase activity, ensuing in lessened eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Phosphorylation of eNOS is required for the hemodynamic actions of insulin, this consequences in lessened blood flow to skeletal musculus and endothelial disfunction that so worsens insulin opposition. The metabolic consequences of drawn-out insulin opposition produce Glucose intolerance. AS mentioned earlier, glucose consumption in adipocytes and skeletal musculus cells is decreased and can no longer be absorbed by the cells but remains in the blood, but hepatic glucose production is increased. Therefore an overrun insulin by beta cells to keep plasma glucose homeostasis. Once the pancreas is no longer able to bring forth adequate insulin to get the better of the insulin opposition, impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ) develops. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization, IGT is a pre diabetic status in which serum glucose concentrations range between 140 and 200A mg/dL 2 H after a 75A g glucose burden ( WHO ) Persons with IGT have extended loss of first stage insulin secernment and a decreased 2nd stage, and persons with type 2 diabetes have small first stage insulin release at all. ( Mackie and Zafari 2006 ) Postprandial hyperglycaemia appears to bring forth oxidative emphasis, addition protein glycation, addition hypercoagulability, and damage endothelial cells, all of which promote coronary artery disease. Hyperglycemia is a well-known hazard factor for micro and macrovascular disease ( HutchesonA andA Rocic 2012 ) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality via means an increased hazard of CVD and type 2 diabetes among others. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased oxidative emphasis. Recent documents suggest that some of the implicit in pathologies contribute more entire oxidative emphasis than others ( HutchesonA andA Rocic 2012 ) ( huge grounds to see, more research needed ) Adipose tissue has been shown to lend to the production of reactive O species and proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-I ± , IL-6, and IL-18. Previous surveies showing that fleshiness and MetS are independently associated with increased oxidative emphasis and inflammatory load. The presence of MetS exacerbates oxidative and inflammatory emphasis in corpulent grownups with higher systemic markers of oxidative emphasis and low-grade chronic redness in corpulent grownups with MetS compared with corpulent grownups free of MetS ( Guilder 2006 ) . Cross-sectional informations from 2,002 non-diabetic topics of the community-based Framingham Offspring Study has shown that systemic oxidative emphasis is associated with insulin opposition ( Meigs 2007 ) . There are besides negative effects of inordinate and deficient slumber on metabolic syndrome prevalence are described in ( Vosatkova et al 2012 ) . Despite a familial background of the upset, its outgrowth and development are strongly influenced by life manner. Therefore, intervention metabolic syndromeA by and large focuses onA diet and exercising. regularA physical activityA and a diet with aA restricted Calories intake, that is high inA whole grains, A monounsaturated fatsA and works nutrients ( such as theA Mediterranean diet ( Kastorini 2011 ) . The medical direction of metabolic syndrome includes CVD hazard, Blood force per unit area control WITH ( angiotension-converting enzyme ( ACE ) A inhibitors AND ORA angiotension receptor blockersA ( ARBs ) , drug therapy for Cholesterol withA lipid-lowering medicines ) , preventive Diabetes intervention and Exercise rehabilitation plans to help loss and mobility, In decision prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing steadily across assorted populations increasing hazards CVD and Diabetes related co-morbidities. Metabolic syndrome includes insulin opposition, splanchnic adiposeness, atherogenic dyslipidemia and endothelial disfunction and their ain related effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms of Mets are all interconnected. With changing planetary statistics and multiple universe definitions and standards a comprehensive cosmopolitan definition of the metabolic syndrome is needed for elucidation. The NCEP ATP III definition uses straightforward standards that are measured readily AND easiest to use clinically and epidemiologically. Metabolic syndrome and its different definitions do place the pathophysiological mechanisms that underline the procedure Insulin opposition and cardinal fleshiness are clearly cardinal constituents of the disease as they both cause glucose intolerance and dysplycemia. Metabolic syndrome is complex and there is new research on traveling. The best signifier of bar seem to be an easy hole for most MetS persons, lifestyle alterations and weightless. How to cite The Background Of Metabolic Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Group 2A The Alkaline Earth Metals Essay Example For Students

Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals Essay Introduction:This lab was divided into four parts: Part 1 was about testing for hydrogen gas. Part 2 involved finding the pH levels of certain elements. Part 3 was about testing for solubility. Part 4 was simply taking in the observations and making them make sense. Procedure:Part 1: 1) Pour about 2.5 mL of distilled water into a clean, dry test tube and stand the tube in the test tube rack. Add a calcium turning to the water in the tube. To collect gas being released, invert a clean, dry test tube holder. 2) Test for hydrogen gas by inserting a burning wood splint into the upper part of the inverted tube. 3) Add a few drops of phenolphthalein solution to the reactant tube. After making your observations, discard the contents of the tube and clean and dry the tube. 4) Repeat step 1, using a 10-cm piece of magnesium ribbon in place of the calcium. If no visible reaction occurs, heat the water to boiling, using a test tube holder to hold the tube over the burner flame. CAUTION: Point the tube away from yourself and others while heating. 5) Once the water is boiling, stand the tube in a test tube rack and, using a test tube holder, invert a collecting tube over the reactant tube. After a few seconds, test for hydrogen gas. 6) Turn off the burner and add a few drops of phenolphthalein to the reactant tube. Record your observations. Discard the contents of the tube, and clean and dry the tube. Part 2:7) Obtain 2.5-mL samples of saturated solutions of calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and barium hydroxide. Test each solution with pH paper. Record the pH of each solution. Part3:8) Using the laboratory balance, measure out 1-g sample of magnesium sulfate. Place it in a clean, dry test tube. 9) Repeat step 8 for calcium sulfate and barium sulfate. 10) Add 2.5 mL of distilled water to each tube. Using a glass stirring rod, stir each mixture thoroughly, getting as much of each solid to dissolve as possible. Record your observations of the relative solubilities of each of these compounds. Part 4:11)Stand 3 clean, dry test tubes in the test tube rack. Using the 0.1M solutions, add about 2.5mL of the MgCl2 solution to one tube, 2.5 mL of the CaCl2 solution to a second tube, and 2.5 mL of BaCl2 to the third tube. 12)To each of the solutions in the test tubes, add about 1 mL of the Na2CO3 solution. Record your observations. Materials:balancewood splintsburner pH papertest tubes, 13 x 100 mm (3)stirrertest tube holderflame testertest tube rackfilter papercalcium turnings (Ca)saturated solutions of :magnesium ribbon (Mg)calcium hydroxidemagnesium sulfate crystals (MgSO4)magnesium hydroxidecalcium sulfate crystals (CaSO4)barium hydroxidebarium sulfate crystals (BaSO4)0.1 M solutions of :distilled watersodium carbonatephenolphthalein solutionmagnesium chloridecalcium chloridebarium chlorideResults:See attached dittoDiscussion:For us, there were not a whole lot of expectations for this lab except for testing for the hydrogen gas, where we did believe that gas would be generated in both the calcium and the magnesium, and in both cases, our hypothesis was correct. This lab had a lot of possible sources of error simply because if anyone had reused or put back the sample of an element, the entire quantity of that element was contaminated. So, there could be contaminated samples, dirty test tubes, and even possib ly dirty water. Conclusion:I had thought that this was going to be a confusing lab, but as it went on, I found myself understanding the material quite well. We were both quite intrigued by the hydrogen gas experiment with the generation of sound from fire and gas. All in all, I found this to be a pretty fun lab.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Revolutionary characters free essay sample

Now this process helped shaped the colonies culture of civility because the colonists were never hunters. When the colonists got to the North America they already knew that their society was going to stem from agriculture. That Is what happened in the southern colonies. These colonies produced tobacco, indigo, and rice. Then after a large period of agricultural growth in the southern colonies the northern colonies started to produce raw materials to trade back to England. Then after that they started producing finished products but this did not go along with Britains mercantilism policies. Either way the colonies culture was to trade goods and raw materials commercially. This Is what makes the colonies so unique. This is because for most countries this process of climbing the metaphorical latter of social civility would have taken so much longer. That is how the social theory of civilizations social process was made and how It came to shape the cultural civility In the American colonies. We will write a custom essay sample on Revolutionary characters or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Founding fathers view of their role In shaping political and social culture of Revolutionary America was to be leaders.One prerequisite of being a leader back in the 18th century was to act like a gentleman. The qualities of a gentle man includes being Tolerant, honest, virtuous, and lastly candid. This was extremely crucial In forming a political and social culture in our country. That is because this means that the leaders of our countries should abide by these principles of being tolerant, honest, virtuous, and candid. One In particular that sticks out of this list Is candid. Especially in todays politics there are very few leaders and politicians that are honest and candid.Today we find many leaders lying and making false promises to the citizens Just to be elected or In our present day case reelected. Uses one could say that the original principals that this country was technically founded on are not being fallowed by todays leaders in Americas. The founding fathers also played a gigantic role In the social culture In America. The social culture In America was very unique at the time. When you are born in America you are not already put into a social class. There is an equal opportunity for each and every person.And the role that the founding fathers had played In this was being the people who wrote the constitution which says what we can or can not do also known as our set of laws. It says in the constitution that all men are created equally which socially speaking there are not any nobles there are not any serfs or lords there are Just citizens. But what happens to slaves? Well in Thomas Pains common sense he says that the government should own property. But if all men are created equal then how can a man be another mans property. The founding fathers had decided and played a large role in the social culture of The United States but however they never made a concrete law or amendment about slavery in the constitution. Eventually this issue will come up time ND time again and this issue will finally be solved almost a century (a hundred years) after this country was founded in the civil war. The founding fathers view of them self effected the ultimate goal of the American Revolution. The way our founding fathers viewed themselves was that they were civilians fighting for the right to be free.This made a major impact on the American Revolution. This is because now the ultimate goal of the American Revolution was to have a free nation away from the mercantilism policies of Great Britain. Well at least that was the goal on the surface. Below this goal were a set of economic goals that were set out by our founding fathers. All of our founding fathers were very wealthy men and smart men. I believe that before when the colonies basically had self rule they made a lot more money.I believe to the public eye this revolution was a about land and liberty but to the founding fathers it could have Just as easily been about one thing, and that is that there was a lot of money to be made off of America and they were going to make it. Before the American Revolution was completely underway one of our founding fathers John Hancock was someone who would smuggle cod fish room Cape Cod Massachusetts all the way to the Caribbean and he was making a good living. Once Great Britain had stopped their salutary neglect and began to actually in force the navigation acts things for smuggling founding fathers started to change.Now Britain had begun to regulate the selling and buying of these products which mainly effected the smugglers or d ealers of these goods. These dealers Just so happen to be our founding fathers. As much as an American that I want to believe that our revolution was fought for the pursuit of freedom. I can not. This is because he beginning of the revolts were purely stemmed from an economic basis. The original ultimate goal of the American Revolution was to be free from Britain not because they did not have rights.It was to break away from Great Britain so they could be able to establish their own free trade away from Britain and not have Great Britain take a cut of the percentage of what the colonies were producing and selling. Another goal of the American Revolution was to not be taxed unfairly by Great Britain. As Patrick Henry said at The House Of Burgess No taxation! Without representation! This means that Patrick Henry thought that it was unfair for the British to pass laws saying they could tax the colonies when the colonies did not have a vote.Technically the colonies did have representatives in British Parliament but, they were not voted into Parliament by colonial citizens which pretty much makes it so that the colonies did not actually have their voice being heard. Instead they did not have a say about what taxes Britain would pass in Parliament, the taxes would be decided for the colonies. Basically the founding fathers viewed themselves differently than the public. The public eye viewed them as people who were trying to eight for freedom and equal rights for all men, but in actuality they viewed themselves as business men and gentlemen.This dramatically changed the goal for power and making a good amount of money from this Revolution by using trade and producing goods and sellin g them to other nations. That is how the way the founding fathers had viewed themselves prior to the American Revolution had changed the goal of the American Revolution from fighting for the right to be free to fighting for the right to trade freely under their own supervision.